Genetics is the most important branch of Biotechnology. It is the study of heredity. This subjects includes transfer of characteristics of one generation to another in plants and animals including human being. Modern genetics based on De-oxyribo Nucleic Acid i.e. DNA.
Various sectors of genetics are in the modern trend. A number of career opportunities exist in the field of Genetic Science, Genetic Engineering, Cytogenesis, Molecular Genetics and Population Genetics.
Genetic scientists are involved in pursuing research for identifying particular genes in plant, animal and human beings. Genetic engineering involves manipulation of gene structure by rearranging altering or splicing in it. Further, it is divided into two streams- Genetic engineering of plants and animals as well as Genetic engineering for human.
Genetic engineering of plants and animal is not a new phenomenon. It began in 1970's but gained global importance only in last decade. Whole purpose of genetic engineering in plants and animals is to improve certain characteristics. Through Genetic engineering, color, size etc. of any plant can be changed.
In case of human, gene manipulation may be substituted by gene transplantation, known as Gene therapy.
Cyto-genetics study the cell structures and chromosomes. Molecular genetics study the protein molecules in cell or DNA. Population Genetics study all phenomenon concerning mutation and prevention of harmful transmission of diseases.
Student , who have passed their 10+2 examination from any recognized Board or University with Physics, Chemistry and Biology subjects, can get admission to graduation course in genetics.
Genetics is ranked among top career avenues in world, specially in Europe and America. In India it is in its early stage. A professional can get a salary of Rs.6,000/- to Rs.10,000/-per month without a great effort.